17
Aug 13

BABYLON ZOO – “Spaceman”

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#733, 27th January 1996

Spaceman The nu millennium demands nu music. Twinkling neon keyboard and nebular swells of synth herald the cyberdelic overlord of compu-pop. What galactic visions have his mauve eyes witnessed? What secrets of the funk cosmic lie in his androgyne grasp? Cyborgs flex to hip-hop breaks as he begins his star-borne song, his voice pitched high, warped into alien tongues. Speak, voyager!

And then the actual song begins.

One version of the “Spaceman” story has Babylon Zoo playing – with the help of Levi’s Jeans – a mean and hilarious trick on the Great British Record Buying Public. Levi’s were now in the happy position, for an advertiser, of their every creative choice getting actual news coverage, and their sci-fi follow-up to the claymation shenanigans of “Boombastic” buzzed with adland confidence. Punky alien girl shocks the space-squares back home by returning from Earth – gasp! – with a pair of jeans. This cornball idea was gorgeously realised and its soundtrack played a huge part – a thrilling, helium-voiced nugget of breakbeat pop futurism. “Spaceman”, in other words, but only the first thirty seconds – spliced onto the track from its Arthur Baker remix. Viewers rushing to buy the single on the back of the ad had no idea the song was about to plunge into growly rock suet.

This story is backed up not just by the speed of sales but by the near-total indifference shown to anything Babylon Zoo did afterwards. But it’s not supported by the intensity of “Spaceman”’s popularity: five weeks at number one, over a million sold. The radio wasn’t just playing the first 30 seconds – so while some people bought “Spaceman” to recapture a commercial’s shiver of alien glamour, many more will have picked it up because they liked the whole song.

So what’s there to like? On paper, “Spaceman” looks like a hard hitting record. The first British Asian man at Number One, singing about homophobia, incipient fascism, media overload, and how “It’s time to terminate the great white world”. But that’s really not how it sounds. For one thing you have to squint selectively to pull any coherent reading out of dystopian boilerplate like “beyond the black horizon / trying to take control”. And the songwriting feels similar to the last time Levis deigned to pluck a band from obscurity – grunge soup, dynamic shifts taking the place of hooks. Behind the expensive makeover for “Spaceman”, this is no doubt what every fifth-rate indie rock band sounded like in the mid-90s.

But the main reason “Spaceman” fails is that Jas Mann is such a terrible vocalist. His performance on “Spaceman” is horribly overcooked – a nasal cyberpunk snarl distorted and amped up in ways that can’t hide how thin his voice is. It’s a crowded field, but there may well be no single sound on a 90s number one more viscerally annoying for me than Mann sneering “There’s a fire between us – so where is your God?”. Ultimately this dark-future mind bomb is a dud not because of its bait-and-switch, not because its harsh truths flew over listeners’ heads, but because its singer sounded like a tool.

Even then, “Spaceman” is a marker for a 90s current we’d otherwise miss. Babylon Zoo’s Bowie-esque playbook had been well thumbed over the last few years by Suede – a hubristic, big-talking frontman, borrowing from sci-fi and glam, teasing his audience with gender fluidity (“Saris are really comfortable to wear – and a lot of fun!”). And the sound – gothy, contemptuous, faintly industrial – would turn up independently and in a much beefier, more convincing way with Marilyn Manson’s glam rock turn.

Glam haunted the 90s, feeding into ideas, styles, and looks that were floating around pop culture, without ever really threatening a specific revival. I wouldn’t claim “Spaceman” for glam: the guitar textures and the poses fit, but glam rock’s power was in its rhythmic push, and without Arthur Baker ‘s help “Spaceman” gets stuck in its own sludge. But its success shows the appetite for theatre that’s always bubbling under British pop. You need a special talent to turn that urge into a career, though, and Jas Mann only looked the part.

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Comments

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  1. 31
    Tom on 17 Aug 2013 #

    #28 I remember hearing that JM was pretty cross Levi’s only used the sped up bit, dunno if this is true – Wikipedia claims the original has a ‘creepy’ spoken intro.

  2. 32
    Mark G on 17 Aug 2013 #

    Sun Ra, anybody?

  3. 33
    Billy Hicks on 17 Aug 2013 #

    For those wanting “the proper version”, if you can track down a copy of the CD single of ‘The Boy With The X-Ray Eyes’ (third single from the album and a minor #32 hit) one of the tracks is called ‘Spaceman (Zupervarian remix)’ which is a special mix Arthur Baker did keeping all the full track’s vocals but speeding the whole thing up to sound like the ad.

    My only memories of this are from the advert, and the big “Yay it’s…wait what?!” moment for me only came in about 2004 when I heard the full thing for the first time. Interesting that the official Youtube version takes out the Levi’s bit altogether, and has instead the said-creepy intro.

  4. 34
    Billy Hicks on 17 Aug 2013 #

    #27 – Early 1996 does indeed to be the closest gabber/happy hardcore ever came to being a UK chart force. Technohead’s ‘I Wanna Be A Hippy’ is surely the biggest selling example in this country, peaking at #6 around the same time, while Scooter got a #19 with ‘Back in the UK’ and Interactive #28 with ‘Forever Young’ – a slower, housier Red Jerry remix was the lead mix on the UK single but it included the faster hardcore radio edit as seen elsewhere in Europe.

    Then out of nowhere, Nakatomi’s ‘Children of the Night’ suddenly appears at #29 in late 2002, despite being originally a #149 hit in 1996. Possibly a more up-to-date ‘clubland’ remix than the hardcore original?

  5. 35
    Andrew Farrell on 17 Aug 2013 #

    #10 – true sign of Bowie’s awareness of his legacy (and willingness to fk with people’s awareness) = appearing with Placebo at the ’99 Brits!

  6. 36
    speedwell54 on 17 Aug 2013 #

    The advert sold me and I wasn’t on my own. I had it my head it would sell out so went to my local “Badlands” store on the Saturday before release to order it. They had all the new releases on a shelf behind the counter. They had a couple of copies of the Chemical Brothers single with the skier on, two others I don’t know -one copy each – and at least 50 copies of “Spaceman”. It was always going to be massive.

    I don’t quite get the idea that on mass, people were ‘tricked’ into buying it and then disappointed when playing the whole track. I’m not saying it never happened but think it may be over egged. As Tom points out this wouldn’t have sustained five weeks at number one.

    Career wise they were on a hiding to nothing after this. Animal Army with the Kravitz guitar and the Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds sounding “The Boy with the X-ray Eyes” were IMO pretty good. I don’t mind “Diamond Dogs” I mean “All the Money’s Gone” either. I think they would have all faired better fronting a massive Levi’s tv advert on heavy rotation.

    8 from me.

  7. 37
    Richard on 17 Aug 2013 #

    #27, #34 – This has reminded me of one of my strongest memories of early 1996. In March of that year I went on an outward bound trip with the school to the Brecon Beacons, and there was an outing to the local swimming pool. On the minibus the popular choice of music was a happy hardcore tape played at ear-splitting volume. At the time I would’ve preferred to hear the new Terrorvision album.

    17 years later and I’m pretty sure I’d rather have the happy hardcore.

  8. 38
    mapman132 on 17 Aug 2013 #

    For a song that never charted in the US, and that I’ve heard maybe 4-5 times in my life, three of which were in the past two days, I have a lot to comment on. Somehow there’s a lot more going on here than just your typical one hit wonder…

    First, from a US perspective, the phenomenon of advertisements spawning hit singles is a bit odd. I’m not saying it never happens here, but I can’t think of anything as big as this or any of the other ad-inspired #1’s I’ve read about on this blog. In fact, outside of the Super Bowl, individual ads rarely become pop culture phenomenons at the level being described here. Ad *campaigns* do, but not individual commercials so much. Perhaps this is a result of the US being so much bigger and geographically diverse (and with more TV viewing options)? Again, the Super Bowl exception would seem to support this theory.

    Also, I’ve never been aware of any specific following regarding Levi’s ads. The brand is certainly well-known and successful in its homeland, but if there were any memorable ads, I must’ve missed them.

    As for Babylon Zoo, I was still following the UK chart from afar via James Masterton’s blog in 1996. So I was aware of the massive sales, the massive press, and (I think) the 7-record deal surrounding this potential new megagroup, and I eagerly awaited the appearance of the mystery song “Spaceman” on US radio. That of course never happened. I think I did manage to download a short clip of remixed version in question, but that’s as much as I ever heard at the time. Then the album flopped, followups flopped, and within a few months the entire music world acted like Babylon Zoo had never existed. It was like an entire music career had been compressed into a few months, making the likes of Vanilla Ice look like a multi-decade long runner by comparison. Again, this was all from my US perspective of never hearing more than that 30 second remix, but it just seemed very, very odd to me.

    So, finally the song itself. I finally listened to it a couple years ago on Youtube. And again a few times in the past couple days because of this blog. And I gotta say…I actually LIKE it. It’s strange that it never got promoted on these shores since I think it would have been right at home on US MTV or modern rock radio of 1996. Maybe the bait-and-switch remix controversy killed it. Too bad. 9/10 for me.

  9. 39
    mapman132 on 17 Aug 2013 #

    OK, now that I wrote the above, I thought of one sort-of example of an ad spawning a US #1. The bunny prevents me from naming the song directly, but there was a six week #1 in 2012 that got major exposure from a Super Bowl ad that year, and propelled it overnight into the Top 3 before radio had taken notice yet. Still though, I say “sort of” because it quickly got disconnected culturally from the ad to the point where I’d forgotten it was in an ad. And the group has become self-sustaining with some other hit singles since then. So an ad can certainly give a huge lift to a song in the US, but I don’t think it get a song to #1 all by itself.

  10. 40
    Tom on 17 Aug 2013 #

    BTW since nobody else has said it, this record has the best sleeve we’ve seen for ages.

    #38

    “First, from a US perspective, the phenomenon of advertisements spawning hit singles is a bit odd. I’m not saying it never happens here, but I can’t think of anything as big as this or any of the other ad-inspired #1′s I’ve read about on this blog. In fact, outside of the Super Bowl, individual ads rarely become pop culture phenomenons at the level being described here. Ad *campaigns* do, but not individual commercials so much. Perhaps this is a result of the US being so much bigger and geographically diverse (and with more TV viewing options)? Again, the Super Bowl exception would seem to support this theory.”

    Yes, the Super Bowl is the only time it would happen – though US advertisers are now starting to make commercials for the web as much as for TV, which might mean more coast-to-coast exposure for a featured song. American commercials are also generally very different in style from the kind of campaigns which launched hit songs in the UK. Here, the brand would generally get out of the way of the story/imagery/song – in the Levis’ campaign, product information tends to be left very implicit or only featured right at the end. In America, voiceovers, testimonials and product claims are a LOT more common. A voiceover would have ruined the “Spaceman” ad (or any of the others). Again, the Super Bowl is something of an exception – it’s when US advertisers get let off the leash and produce more creative, less product-focused work.

  11. 41
    flahr on 17 Aug 2013 #

    I note that an overexcited Tanya Headon forgot about the “hating music” part of their brief and called the intro “an excitingly skittery five second advert tune“.

  12. 42
    Jeremy on 17 Aug 2013 #

    I had some fun speeding up my walkman and hearing the song as it should be heard! Now, it’s easier: just get a speedup plugin for Winamp and listen to Spaceman in the cool sense!

  13. 43
    mapman132 on 18 Aug 2013 #

    #40 Hadn’t thought of the voiceover effect, but that’s an excellent point. Isn’t it true that many of the imagery-based ads, especially the Levi’s ones, are made for a Pan-European audience? Of course, voiceovers could be recorded in multiple languages, but I guess they don’t want to do that for reasons of cost or consistent brand identity.

  14. 44
    Izzy on 18 Aug 2013 #

    They do seem to be, and I’ve never understood why. It doesn’t make sense to me to sell mundane consumer goods to the UK using cycling families, sun-baked cities, or those apartment buildings with neat rows of aluminium letter-boxes in the foyer. Let alone tiny bits of footage with woeful dubbing. How doesn’t this harm the campaign?

    Levi’s not really of this ilk though – they feel more British in humour, and depend on music and fantastical scenarios anyway.

  15. 45
    Another Pete on 18 Aug 2013 #

    #38 #44 You also have to take into effect that in that in 1996 the UK only had two commercial terrestrial TV channels. I think this is why British adverts try to go out their way to entertain as the biggest rival doesn’t have them.

    The explanation to why the sitcom Police Squad! was cancelled by ABC suggests in the US it is more about what you hear than what you see, which would explain the voiceovers.

  16. 46
    Rory on 18 Aug 2013 #

    At last, a cover I recognise (and I agree, it’s a good one; I love the insect-like effect of the arching goggles). I picked up a second-hand copy of “Spaceman” on CD single a few months after it peaked at number 3 in Australia, but it didn’t last long in my collection; my two dollars’ worth of interest was exhausted within a year. (Yes, I can tell this from an archived spreadsheet of my past music purchases. Sad, I know.) Off it went to Revolution CD in Canberra, the same way as a couple of other one-hit wonders I mentally lump with this one, EMF’s “Unbelievable” and Spacehog’s “In the Meantime” (both on their parent albums, no less; at least I didn’t fall for that with Babylon Zoo). Unlike those two, though, “Spaceman” hadn’t enjoyed a slight return in Fraunhofer form.

    I wish I hadn’t ditched it now; not least because the only versions I can find online aren’t the one I remember, the shorter radio edit, which didn’t have the distracting “Babylon Zoo” chant. At least EMF had the good sense to break up their eponymous chanting with the mother of all obscenities. But that silly touch aside, I feel unexpectedly warm towards this. The slide from dancing chipmunks to cod glam doesn’t bother me, and didn’t bother me back then; I would have found it hard to take a whole single of the sped-up vocals, as a listen to the Zupervarian mix has confirmed. I wasn’t introduced to the song by a 30-second snippet on an advert, so there was no bait and switch. No, I liked that sort of doom-laden rock plod back in the mid-’90s, with the synth touches to make it feel appropriately fin de siecle. A few Aussie bands at the time traded in the same, and I liked them too.

    All of which means that “Spaceman” now has a remarkable ability to take me back in Time as well as Space, to see 1996 in all its OK Computer-is-just-around-the-corner glory. Perhaps not coincidentally, after OK Computer was released the following year was when I ditched this CD single; Jas Mann couldn’t compete with the real rock-n-bits thing. I was being a bit harsh on it, though. As taking-themselves-too-seriously one-hit wonders go, this is as memorable and goofy as any, and I’m now inclined to give it… oh, go on then, 7.

    (Eye-opening tidbit encountered while reading around the tracks I’ve mentioned here: Spacehog’s lead singer Royston Langdon was married to Liv Tyler for five years.)

  17. 47
    Rory on 18 Aug 2013 #

    #13: “Who Are You” (Who, Who… Who, Who)

  18. 48
    mapman132 on 18 Aug 2013 #

    #46 Hadn’t noticed until now, but “Spaceman” does bear a resemblance to “In the Meantime” (which I also owned, and still do, via its parent album).

    More Spacehog trivia: I couldn’t remember if they were American or British. Apparently the answer is Yes: all originally from Leeds, but met and formed in New York. Never would’ve guessed the Liv Tyler thing though.

  19. 49
    swanstep on 18 Aug 2013 #

    @Rory, 46. Glad you mentioned Spacehog’s ‘In The Meantime’ (I almost did): that’s not only another one-hit-wonder from the time, but like ‘Spaceman’ it struck some vaguely glam/Bowie-ish notes. Note that Bowie had an early 1996 single from his Outside album, ‘Hallo Spaceboy’, so there was definitely a bit of space-rock in the air.

    US vs UK advertizing: I’m pretty sure it’s widely understood that the norm in the US is to offer a list of reasons for purchase whereas the norm in the UK is to go for more nebulous branding, positive assocation-building, etc.. There are plenty of exceptions on both sides, but, for example, you very rarely have the experience with US advertising of not knowing what the ad’s for, whereas that’s not at all uncommon in the UK or down under (which broadly follows the UK tradition in this).

  20. 50
    Jonathan Bogart on 18 Aug 2013 #

    I too associate this with “In the Meantime,” which I heard just as often, and as context-free, around the same time. When I want to be nostalgic, however, Spacehog is on Spotify (in the US) and Babylon Zoo is not.

  21. 51
    Will on 18 Aug 2013 #

    You know what? The tune actually grew on me during the course of its five week stay at Number One. But oh Christ, those lyrics are unforgivable – ‘there’s a fire between us/so where is your God?’…’images of fascist folks’ ‘Fascist folks’? Who’d ever heard the far right described in such a homely manner?

  22. 52
    Rory on 18 Aug 2013 #

    A certain fascist called his country’s most famous vehicle a folks-wagon…

    But yes, very silly lyrics. And I’d never twigged the “intergalactic Christ” bit before. Now I have an image of Edward Woodward screaming “Christ!” in a Wicker Man taking off from Summerisle like a rocket.

  23. 53
    Patrick Mexico on 18 Aug 2013 #

    What the hell is this. It’s a mess, but a quite marvellous mess.

    Jas Mann deserves his five minutes of fame as he knew how to be a pop star – be as colourful, be as preposterous, be as making your parents say “oh god, not him again, what is this awful racket”… to quote Simon Price be as “Top of the Pops or top yourself.. terminal adolescence” as possible. You’re right about the ugly, karaoke-Bowie vocals, but I don’t think anything else soundtracking a Levi’s ad has been this much fun. 6.

    This also brings to mind two great playground memes of the era..

    a) “What do you do when you see a space, man? Park in it, man”

    b) “Rain man, I always wanted it to pour, down with rain, man”

  24. 54
    Chelovek na lune on 18 Aug 2013 #

    This is a dull record. And trying to be too clever for its own good. I can’t quite decide whether it succeeds or fails in that way. But I can’t argue with “fascist folks”: it is surely a deliberate nod towards the concept of “völkisch”…which certainly fed into German fascism…

  25. 55
    Patrick Mexico on 18 Aug 2013 #

    It reminds me of nearly every Muse single, ever. Sometimes that’s a great thing, more often that not that’s a bloody horrible thing. I’ll do them justice later on TPL.

    Images of fascist folk.. maybe Jas just spent a lot of time in Chorley.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDp3Zr0Tk4s

  26. 56
    @jodymacgregor on 18 Aug 2013 #

    Tom Ewing didn’t like Babylon Zoo’s ‘Spaeman’, it’s a world gone mad. http://t.co/w1DLIEw3A4

  27. 57
    Tim Byron on 19 Aug 2013 #

    I feel like I must have seen the Levi’s ad for this in Australia, but watching it on YouTube just then draws a complete mental blank, so it’s possible it didn’t get played here, but it was a big hit in Australia, anyway, spending a couple of months in the top 10 and getting to #3 (beaten that week by Joan Osborne’s “One Of Us” and Everything But The Girl’s “Missing”.

    I loved this at the time and so bought the single. I specifically liked the way that the single edit sped up at the end – it gave you something to wait for at the end of the song, and the sped-up-ness and the swirls of keyboards does quite well at evoking alien abduction etc (I was very definitely into the X-Files at this point, so this appealed to me).

    I remember that the local record store had a weekly “mail in your answers and win a CD” competition in the local paper that I would sometimes enter, and that I entered to win “The Man With The X-Ray Eyes”. The next week I discovered that the CD was actually won by an old friend I no longer went to school with because of not being in primary school any more.

    Listening to it now, I am slightly astonished that Tom dislikes the vocal performance, because to my mind, Mann does a pretty good job of it (then again, I had just fallen head over heels for the Smashing Pumpkins in early 1996, so maybe the whine of the vocals was doing something for my authentic mid-1990s just-hit-puberty teen angst). It’s the lyrics that I find hard to deal with now – ‘there’s a fire between us – so where is your God?’ etc. (I definitely wrote similar lyrics in my poorly-formed songs at the time, so clearly those lyrics were tapping some ridiculous teen angst that didn’t seem dumb to a 14 year old).

    The worst thing about the song, in 2012, is the lack of propulsion in the rhythm section. It desperately needs something, some sort of syncopation or maybe a bit of speeding up? SOMETHING. I mean, it sort of works in the chorus (but then that sounds way better sped up, doesn’t it, so maybe it doesn’t!), but the rest of it sounds absolutely turgid.

    My partner who teaches in a contemporary music course at university has a story of 18-year-olds watching the video for this song a couple of years ago. It was on a TV in a hallway that was playing some 1990s countdown on a pay TV channel, and she stopped and watched the video for a little nostalgia. Some young music students who were hanging around the hallway were looking at the TV with confused looks on their faces, and asked her if this was actually a hit (to which she replied, yes). After a silence, one kid eventually said (to furious nods of agreement from the others), “Man, musicians had no idea what the fuck they were doing in the 1990s”.

  28. 58
    swanstep on 19 Aug 2013 #

    @57, Tim. Thin voices like Corgan’s or Bernard Sumner’s or Robert Smith’s or Brett Anderson’s or Liz Phair’s can be just the ticket – they stand or fall on the ideas (lyrical and arrangement) and the attitude with which they’re paired. Pitching’s often a problem but it can add lots of character (although consistently off-key live can be punishing – Juliana Hatfield, Ian Brown, just yikes). Anyhow, small details can make a difference – Spaceman is full of duff moments (for me the ‘I can’t get on the carousel…’ part stops the song dead, as does the 20 seconds of aimless guitar bashing after the first chorus – why not just cut back to verse? maybe if the rising distorted scream in that passage were mixed higher we’d have another hook, but as it is….), and I think it’s the accumulation of those kinds of mis-steps that leaves us resistant to the vocals in Spaceman. For an example of getting all the deatils right, here’s Corgan banging on about God live in 1998 w/ able help from (Aladdin Sane genius pianist) Mike Garson. Sounds fantastic.

  29. 59
    Izzy on 19 Aug 2013 #

    What does ‘thin’ mean? I’d never have said Brett had a thin voice, but I know little about vocal technique. Years of watching The Voice et al haven’t helped either, other than that I’m aware that some people have ‘a lovely tone’.

  30. 60
    Cumbrian on 19 Aug 2013 #

    It’s been said a few times on these pages (in the SMS thread and the ‘95 Poll thread) that Oasis fans were bullies, anti-intellectuals, conservative boors. Having been to a few of their gigs (and I stopped going to see them around 2001), I can definitely see that this must have been the experience for many people. I couldn’t stand going to see Oasis and being surrounded by boors chucking bottles of piss around – by that point, it just wasn’t worth being there and putting up with all of that stuff, nor being associated with it, so my fandom for Oasis became something that was internalised, never discussed with my friends or peers, though I guess this is something for the relevant late-Oasis threads to discuss more in depth.

    The odd thing though is that, for me, at my school, Oasis fans where part of the great Britpop tribe and we were the nerdy kids who tried to get through life without being bullied. The bullies were all into Trance, House, Happy Hardcore, whatever stripe of dance music they could get their hands on. For me, it was that music which I associated – unfairly, I might add – with the people who pushed me around, didn’t put much thought into things and were generally intolerant of the “other”.

    Which is why, put bluntly, I loved Spaceman. A whole load of these bullies at school heard it on the Levis ad, sucked in by the technoish section and ran around singing it all day to the point that they went out and bought it, only to be disgusted that they’d been duped by a slab of glam rock.* What was even better is that the lyrics in the bridge are pretty clearly a diatribe against the closed minded thinking that was running through these guys (and the weight of all the homophobic jokes, impending fascism and so on that Jas/the Jas character has been getting, even leads to confusion – “beam me up cos I can’t breathe” versus “I always wanted you to go into space”, i.e. should you or I be the one to bugger off so that I can lead a life of my choosing without you giving me shit? And does it really matter, so long as I am free of you?). Combine that with dramatic, stylised TOTP appearances in silver sarongs, the makeup and immaculate hair and it quickly became apparent that this guy was clearly so far “other” that this would not stand for my school adversaries. I could see that this, frankly beautiful, androgynous Asian guy had snuck a whole load of stuff that my bullies hated in through the back door. The schadenfreude was delicious.

    I’d still give this a 7 now. The verses are pretty lumpen but I do like the bridge and chorus with the great thrashy Bernard Butler-esque guitars. The Bowie comparisons must have been a bit of a weight, mind; subsequent releases would seem to suggest that Jas didn’t quite have the élan of Bowie and he sank quickly thereafter, with the NME, in particular, keen to describe him as a fluke. Well, to my ears, he was no worse than some of the mid-table Britpop acts they were foisting on us. I could have done with Babylon Zoo sticking around a bit longer I think. A streak of preposterousness would have been good to have in the mix.

    *To those questioning whether this duping of the public happened: it definitely happened. I saw it happen. Who was buying it in ensuing weeks, one can only speculate. But it should be noted that some advertising theory suggests that the effective frequency level of an advert is 3-5 exposures (i.e. enough that you will have seen and remember the ad but not enough that you are sick of seeing it). The aim is to get an average frequency in this range over your entire campaign. It is, I guess, possible that the people that bought it in subsequent weeks were those who were getting into this frequency range.

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