Sep 14

BRITNEY SPEARS – “…Baby One More Time”

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#817, 21st February 1999

bomt How was I supposed to know that something wasn’t right?

It was a gilded age: the commercial zenith of the music industry at the end of the 20th century. In America, its apex as a money-making force came in 1999 when – adjusted for inflation – $71 per head was spent on music, a small box set for every man, woman and child in the country. Other countries hit the summit a little later, but they hit it. Did the industry see a crisis coming? Certainly – the Digital Millennium Copyright Act passed in the USA weeks after “….Baby One More Time” was released. But the biz was surely overconfident, it had seen its way through busts before. In 1981, when Britney Jean Spears was born, the industry was financially stagnant, caught in a recession-hit decline after the unsustained mini-boom of disco. It climbed back thanks to technology, and kept climbing. CD revenues rose and rose, and the machine to ensure they would not stop rising grew slicker and faster: radio, TV, promoters, manufacturers, labels, press and retailers meshing ever more efficiently in the pursuit of getting people to take home silver discs. And here we are at the top of the growth charts: peak pop.

The idea that pop had become mechanised soon became a weapon against the industry, a justification for forcibly free music. The list of those grew very familiar in the early 00s: rising CD prices, the mistreatment of artists by rapacious labels, convenient info-utopian philosophy – these reasons were regularly joined by “manufactured pop”. If the product was worthless and generic, why not just take it? And if you were to ask these pirate revolutionaries, who makes manufactured pop? Name me an act – I suspect Britney Spears would have been quick to their lips. Every ancien regime needs its Marie Antoinette.

So it’s time to dig into what “manufactured” means. Because, unquestionably, Britney was trained and raised as an entertainer from a very young age – even if the decision to make her a solo pop star was taken relatively late. And the pop world she emerged into was massive and complex and finely geared, not quite as businesslike as a Unilever or a Glaxo SmithKline, particularly at the edges, but aspiring in that direction. “Machine” doesn’t seem an awful description of it.

At the same time “manufactured” has an inevitably disdainful edge never really felt by other labels in other times who applied production-line principles to their music: Motown, most obviously, whose industrialisation of soul was generally described with purring approval for Berry Gordy’s Fordist vision of pop. And why not? The music was brilliant. Something else is happening when Britney and her peers are called manufactured. The implication is not just that the songs or playing are kit-built, but that the performers themselves are interchangeable, barely more than automatons. If millennial pop is a machine, then – according to this idea – Britney is not the owner or the operator, merely the product.

Do we need a different metaphor? Does Britney deserve one?

One hint towards an answer comes from listening to “…Baby One More Time”. Because, fifteen years on, two things jump out at me. One is, yes, how steely and immediate and effective this is compared to the (often very charming) bubblegum of Billie, B*Witched et al. “…Baby One More Time” is a ruthlessly lean, superbly constructed pop song: a track with awesome momentum earned by impressive economy, where every note or idea leads to a payoff, and each payoff sets up the next one. It’s a song with a fantastic ending – that final touchdown of “hit me baby one more time!” – but that ending is earned by the bit before where Britney drops the “I must confess / that my loneliness…” bridge, which in turn draws power from being a sneaky inversion of the rest of the song (where it’s the belief she’s confessing, not the loneliness), and so on all the way back to the iconic intro, a four-note knock on fame’s door given in full confidence it will be answered.

But the second thing that jumps out at me is that, for all the clockwork marvels of the construction – something she had nothing much to do with – what “….Baby One More Time” really, really sounds like is a Britney Spears song.

There have been an endless stream of studio leaks, abandoned vocal takes and live howlers which – apparently – prove how weak Britney’s untreated vocals are. But however they got that way, the vocals that appear on record aren’t just competent, they’re distinctive – Britney-as-vocalist may not have much range or skill but texturally her throaty southern cluck is unmistakable. It’s a percussive instrument – that first “oh bay-beh BAY-beh” and the pause straight after it is classic Britney. As of “…Baby One More Time” her voice is still the lead instrument – it’s not until the breakthrough into full-on R&B and club pop that she (and the producers) can really start playing with it, and with her role in the song. As such it has to do things it isn’t totally suited to – the melisma on “how could I have let you go-oh-oh-oh” stretches her thin, for instance. But even at this very early stage there’s no mistaking her.

So Britney isn’t interchangeable – but might she still earn that manufactured tag by being an automaton, a producer’s puppet?

Questions of agency in this high-stakes, professionalised form of pop are very murky. For instance, take two central decisions around Britney’s first single, ones that critically shaped what ended up in front of the public: what the music sounded like, and what the video looked like. In both cases, we know what Britney wanted. For the music, she would have preferred Sheryl Crow-style AOR – a good fit for her husky voice – and acquiesced to her management or label’s wish for bright, upbeat dancepop. (On the album, traces of AOR creep in – odd guitar solos here and there, though this may just be a natural function of bored session musicians doodling in the margins of a teenpop record).

For the video, meanwhile, her managers wanted something generically romantic – the singer and some hot dude or other. Britney had other ideas: she suggested the school setting and the dancing. Which, very obviously, works a lot better – it keeps the focus on her, fits the song (she’s dumped the guy, so best to keep him as a marginal presence), puts it in a setting her audience knows, and most crucially gives a better showcase for her dancing.

(Which is all the video looks like now, midriffs and all – a perpetual-motion song-and-dance number, its controversial sting long drawn by shifting standards. There are better records to talk about how the media obsessed over Britney’s sexuality – and how the Britney publicity machine fuelled that. For now, it’s enough to note that some of the Baby One More Time era coverage, like her first Rolling Stone story (“INSIDE THE HEART, MIND AND BEDROOM OF A TEEN QUEEN”, Britney clutching a plush Teletubby on the cover) surely stepped over a line into creepy Lolita territory. For me the video doesn’t get there, though the furore around it helped set the future press agenda.)

Both these decisions – the musical one Britney disagreed with, and the visual one she came up with – were the right ones, crucial to the single becoming a sensation. If we’re keeping a creative autonomy scorecard, this is a creditable tie. But the whole debate over who came up with what is also a red herring. Even if Britney had zero input into anything, it’s her name up there in lights – the whole enterprise depends on her. The idea that you can dig into the credits and origins of modern corporate pop to find secret lines of creativity and influence is a true one. But to imagine those stories are more important than the public ones can be a seductive fantasy of insider knowledge. Britney Spears, like every modern pop star, is the frontwoman of her own career: the story begins with her. It’s like politics, that other great bit of modern theatre: every candidate is the creature of a party machine. But the individual candidates – their strengths, foibles and priorities – matter. They are the story.

So if “manufactured” is unfair, what is the right metaphor for Britney’s relationship to the pop machine? Scanning the pop culture of the late 90s gives us a better possibility: mecha, the Japanese anime genre where beautiful, tragic youth fuse themselves to sublime, state of the art machines. Britney is not the machine’s puppet; she’s its pilot.

Pop culture’s relationship to “the system” – the societal machines it exists within – is regularly rewritten. The 21st century is a cybernetic era defined by the power (and vulnerability) of complex, interdependent global systems – the climate, the economy, the internet. So the inescapable symbiosis of human and machine – and how the doomed symbiotes cope with it – is as relevant and resonant a cultural metaphor in the 00s as ideas of “the road” and flight from the system were in the 50s and 60s. And such fusions became the dominant form of pop – singers and performers in entwined collaboration with nomadic producers who might end up superstars themselves.

The specific machine that Britney is piloting has a well-known engineer: Max Martin, writing and producing his first number one record as part of his Cheiron Studios production team. Even fans who have never begun to map the circuitry of contemporary pop have heard of Max Martin – and “…Baby One More Time” was a compelling introduction. Those big percussive chords – a statement of intent at the start of the single – became a signature trick of Cheiron and its later imitators. Martin was in a hard rock band at one point before hooking up with the late Denniz Pop and the other Cheiron boys, and you can hear the unashamed, aggressive theatricality of glam threaded through his work.

“Baby One More Time” has other debts to pay, though. It’s shot through with imagery of religious faith and doubt – “I confess”, “I still believe”, “Give me a sign” – and I don’t think it’s fanciful to hear traces of other 90s Swedish pop: the grandiose post-ABBA kitsch of Alexander Bard’s Army Of Lovers project. Their mighty and absurd “Crucified” is a prototype for the kind of fervour “Baby One More Time” trades in. Queen meets ABBA, then: not a bad marker to put down.

But the religious overtones in Britney’s song are mostly there as intensifiers for her emotional state: they raise the stakes, putting a reunion with an ex on the level of spiritual salvation, and making present despair seem starker. This is the thing about the “pilot” metaphor for 21st century machine pop: in mecha stories, the focus isn’t usually on the machines but on the young people inside them and their emotional arcs. And “…Baby One More Time” introduces a major emotional motif in Britney’s pop – doomed, melodramatic, helpless obsession. Not since some of the darker corners of the Shangri-La’s catalogue and the 60s girl group boom has a pop star been so abject, so often, as Britney Spears.

It’s the paradoxes that give “Baby One More Time” its power – a song of self-negating regret performed and choreographed as a statement of total confidence. A generational shift in pop that’s also a restatement of one of its oldest and truest beliefs – that teenage feelings matter, even the dumb and disastrous ones. An ebullient new star born at the onset of the industry’s long twilight. The machine pop age “Baby One More Time” heralds will be one whose pleasures generally come shadowed by complications. In this case – as with all her records when I listen to them now – the shadow is cast not by Britney’s youth, but by her future. The sixteen year old raised to be a star with the drive to insist that her first video be made on her terms is now thirty-two: for the last six years her life and finances have been under the total legal control of her father. Britney’s story, like the record industry’s, has so far not ended happily. Its beginnings, at least, were magnificent.

(This entry, and probably most of the Britney ones, is indebted especially to Isabel Cole’s Britney Week on One Week One Band. Thanks!)



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  1. 121
    Patrick Mexico on 1 Oct 2014 #

    P.S. Congratulations Weej! Delighted Popular may have a “second generation.”

  2. 122
    Tom on 1 Oct 2014 #

    Congratulations Weej! Born under the sign of Nicki Minaj – has to be a good omen.

  3. 123
    Mark M on 2 Oct 2014 #

    Incidentally, a couple of mentions of Sabrina The Teenage Witch above, plus the fact that Melissa Joan Hart is in the video for a non-bunnied Britney single, might (or might not) make this a fair place to ponder the fact that the MJH/Joey Lawrence sitcom (used here to fill random slots in the E4 schedule) has somehow managed to get past 100 episodes. Seems some people really do hate everything that has happened in TV comedy over the last 30 years and yearn for something tangibly pre-Cheers. Alternately: bloody ’90s nostalgists!

  4. 124
    Andrew Farrell on 2 Oct 2014 #

    Pedantry: it’s at 82 episodes, but the new 20-episode season starts this month.

  5. 125
    Tommy Mack on 2 Oct 2014 #

    I’m so late to the party that it’s just a hungover Britney chucking plastic cups with fag butts floating in them into the bin…

    I had an irrational hatred of this at the time. I don’t know why, since I was well over my mid-teens anti-pop snobbery. The only reason I can think is, I was just about to launch my first band on the world and didn’t want anyone beating me to be the first to break up the fallow period ((C) John Peel) in pop music that the press were complaining about at the time (yes, my hubris was such that I saw Britney Spears as my rival…) Repeated exposure would eventually wear me down and I’d end up quite liking this though, as others have noted, there are loads of much better Britney hits. A quick YouTube play reveals BOTM as surprisingly organic and spartan sounding compared with the ear-bursting, studio-tinkered behemoth I remembered. It’s probably passage of time allowing it to mix with subsequent Max Martin productions/Britney Hits/Dre-type stuff I was listening to at the time.

    Re #114: Did anyone else see The Paedophile Hunter on C4 last night? Disquieting and morally dubious stuff.

    Re: #105 – Enitharmon, you are probably right about BOTM’s trebbly sound: I once DJ’d a seventies themed student party where they’d asked for a couple of hours of 70s stuff and them some ‘modern, cheesy stuff’. BOTM was the first record I played to mark the transition (after Chicory Tip which nearly cleared the dancefloor) and it nearly blew the speakers out, such was it’s sonic heft compared to the 70s stuff.

  6. 126
    James BC on 2 Oct 2014 #

    Thinking about the comment above saying BOOTM was offered to TLC first, I wonder if T-Boz was a big vocal influence on Britney. I don’t have the vocabulary to analyse it, but I’m sure there’s a similarity there. Diggin’ On You even has “baby baby” bits!

  7. 127
    punctum on 2 Oct 2014 #

    No idea about that, but Morley says in Words And Music that the song was first offered to Ritchie Blackmore’s Rainbow. I’m a bit dubious about that.

  8. 128
    Mark M on 2 Oct 2014 #

    Re124: Ah, OK – the IMDB has counted in the yet-to-be-broadcast eps. Point stands, though.

  9. 129
    Chris Retro on 2 Oct 2014 #

    Yes, it is true …Baby One More Time was presented to TLC for their Fanmail album, but rejected for being ‘too pop’. I’ve always presumed therefore it was written in a key to suit T-Boz – I can almost hear a more subtle R’n’B version by TLC.

  10. 130
    Mark M on 3 Oct 2014 #

    Re129: Trying to imagine a TLC …Baby One More Time is a useful test of the ‘manufactured pop’ notion – would it have been identical because the singer(s) is (are) just a cog in the machine? I’m pretty certain, like you, that it would have been a wholly different beast.

  11. 131
    Tommy Mack on 3 Oct 2014 #

    You can kind of imagine it: as Chris says, more subtle, probably more sexy, less melodramatic, more digital, less instrument-y – none of Britney’s BOTM’s hints at Max Martin’s rock band background (e.g. guitar and bass fills etc)

  12. 132
    Tom on 3 Oct 2014 #

    Beyond the big radio hits, Fanmail can be a pretty hard-edged album sonically – very deliberately “cyber” and futurist in its approach – so a BOMT for TLC would have probably ended up closer to Britney’s 2004 sound than her 1998 one.

  13. 133
    Elmtree on 4 Oct 2014 #

    My generation’s Like A Prayer. Listening to it on headphones it still sounds radiant and gloriously unlikely: bubblegum gone denser. What an organic, weird combination: wah-wah guitar plus what sounds like a high-pitched calliope sound, and above all the force of those astounding synth stabs and piano. You can imagine someone spending hours trying different keyboard presets trying to get this right. And it doesn’t simply repeat itself-that bass purr around 1:54 is perfectly timed, and it has a breakdown that works. Many pop songs you can throw away after two minutes: this isn’t one of them.

    Meanwhile, the vocals really are perfectly recorded and tracked: the sudden moments where you can clearly hear double-tracking and vocals shadowing one another (and higher-pitched vocals that clearly aren’t Britney’s at climaxes) amp up the anxiety and desperation right to the end. I said Robson and Jerome’s records sounded put together from hundreds of takes: this makes that actually sound good. It makes everything in Britain at the time feel very cheap, and yet it’s not American at all, it’s Swedish. We could have done this if we’d had the smarts. Max Martin apparently says it’s all down to the Swedish education system, and it wouldn’t surprise me at all.

    But if the details are amazing, the totality is perfect. Leaving aside the ethics of making a teenager into a superstar like this, Tom’s comments about religious experience nail it for me. This hits the idea that the perfect teen pop song is about intensity perfectly: it feels very specific, it would fit in the narrative of a musical. And Spears’ voice doesn’t sound like much else: stage-schooled, obviously, but the huskiness is very striking. It really does feel like the first Britney Spears song. Ten.

  14. 134
    Rory on 20 Oct 2014 #

    Tom, I just wanted to note here my thanks for your steer on Britney’s albums @80. I’ve been listening to them all this month, and agree that they get better and better up to Blackout; they’re not bad after that, either, including the low-selling eighth. Her first album is a bit hit-and-miss, but ’00s Britney has turned out to be one of my greatest Popular revelations. When I was spurred by your posts to buy up ABBA’s back-catalogue, I already knew from their hits that it would be decent; similarly with Kylie’s post-SAW work; but Britney I hardly knew beyond this and one or two other songs. I can’t believe I let outdated musical prejudices blind me to such an impressive body of work, and can’t wait until we get to her later number ones here.

  15. 135
    Andrew Farrell on 20 Oct 2014 #

    thanks for your steer

    No call for that sort of language!

  16. 136
    Rory on 20 Oct 2014 #

    #135, sorry, you’ve lost me – is this a British English/non-British English thing, or formal vs informal, or something else? Thanks for the advice /guidance, I meant. (Or should I not be thanking Tom for it?)

  17. 137
    Andrew Farrell on 21 Oct 2014 #

    I am (mostly) joking – I’ve only ever seen ‘steer’ vilified as an example of corporatetalk – though of course some of that will break through to demob speech as well, it’s the first time I’ve seen that one in the wild.

    Edit: Though looking it up I see that I’ve seen that usage plenty of times, but only in the phrase “a bum steer” – I think I always thought there was a cattle metaphor going on there!

  18. 138
    Rory on 21 Oct 2014 #

    Oh, I see. I thought of it as online slang. Google’s showing nearly half a million hits for “thanks for the steer”, from all sorts. The OED dates the usage (“a piece of advice or information; a tip, a lead”) to 1899 in the US, and has British novelist M. M. Kaye using it in 1959.

  19. 139
    ciaran on 29 Oct 2014 #

    Nothing Compares to You will be the sole 90s ’10′ by the looks of it.

    BOMT was a revelation. A record that nearly everyone around me liked. Even the boys at my school didnt object to it and the prefect video with the all american girl in all her glory just made it the perfect package.

    That it kickstarted the teenpop bubble doesnt make me think any less of it.

    Dreary enough follow ups with 1 or 2 later exceptions. Luckily for popular we’ll get to discuss one of them.


  20. 140
    Tom on 29 Oct 2014 #

    Ciaran I like how you waited until “Sunscreen” went up to post that, as if Baz Luhrmann was somehow the decade’s last hope for a 10.

  21. 141
    ciaran on 29 Oct 2014 #

    Nah had nothing whatsoever to do with it Tom.(Honest). Havent had much of a chance to post in the last few months so playing catch up. It’s a remarkable coincidence!

    If ‘Sunscreen’ got a 10 it would have been a sign for you to fold up the tent.

  22. 142
    Gareth Parker on 29 Apr 2021 #

    A decent example of this type of music, but just not really my bag. 5/10.

  23. 143
    Gareth Parker on 8 May 2021 #

    Not a bad song, but I’m just not too keen on Britney’s vocal style. 4/10 from me.

  24. 144
    Stephen Emmett on 24 Aug 2021 #

    I could go on about how it’s a great record and all, but let me say this in short: this truly is the start of one of the best golden ages of pop music and what a brilliant record it is – every little bit of that is just three and a half minutes of 1999 pop magic. And what a deserved UK Number One it was. For that reason alone, I’m going to come clean and admit it: I 100% love this record and it deserves to be ranked extremely highly. It’s a VERY HIGH 10 from me.

  25. 145
    Mr Tinkertrain on 24 May 2022 #

    Much like Wannabe (as was noted above), this was a proper behemoth and felt like the start of something. Perhaps not in the way I’d have liked, but it did make a lot of the British pop of the recent past (B*Witched, 911, Billie etc) seem very lightweight indeed.

    The sheer overplaying of this means that I can’t ever love it, but it’s a decent enough track and as iconic as any song that’s come out in the past 25 years. 7/10.

    I’m a big Blur fan, but Tender has never been a favourite of mine (the follow-up Coffee & TV is much better). I seem to remember that, had Tender made number 1, it would have been the 13th week in a row that there was a new #1 – amusingly, the Blur album which featured Tender was called 13.

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